Oral cancer or mouth cancer a type of head and neck cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.Oral cancers commonly involves the tongue,floor of mouth ,buccal mucosa,gingiva,lips and palate.
Signs and Symptoms
- Skin lesions,ulcers that donot resolve in 14 days located in the oral cavity.
- Early signs may be white patch(leukoplakia) or a red patch(erythroplakia) on the soft tissues of the mouth.
- Usually painless initially
- Pain and paraesthesia are late symptoms
- Chewing betel,paan and areca is known to be strong risk factor
- 75% of oral cancers are due to tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption
- Oncogenes are activated as a result of mutation of the DNA.
- Other factors include poor oral hygiene,irritation by ill fitting dentures,poor nutrition and chronic infections.
- Infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) TYPE 16 is a known risk factor.
- History and physical examination
- Tissue Biopsy
- CT and MRI scan
- Surgical excision(removal) of the tumour.
- Radiation therapy with chemotherapy used as a definitive radical treatment if tumour is inoperable
- Reconstructive surgery may be required to give an acceptable cosmetic and functional result.
- Biological agents such as Cetuximab have recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of squamous cell head and neck cancer.