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Haemorrhoids are cushions of tissue in the anal canal – they are full of blood vessels, support tissue, and elastic fibers.  When the haemorrhoids cushions become too big or swollen they are called as Piles.  

Piles are common during pregnancy. They develop as a result of changes in the hormones (chemicals) in your body and the increased pressure in your abdomen. They usually get better once your baby is born.

Common causes are as below:

  1. Chronic Constipation
  2. Straining when passing a stool
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Low fibre diet
  5. Being overweight


  1. Bright red bleeding from the anus (Frequent blood loss may lead to Anaemia).
  2. Itchiness around the anus
  3. A feeling that your bowels haven’t emptied completely
  4. Swelling or lump near the anus
  5. Mucus discharge when emptying the bowels


Preventive Measures to be taken are:

  1. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables
  2. Drink plenty of water throughout the day
  3. Exercise regularly
  4. Eat plenty of fibre rich food
  5. Eat plenty of wholegrain food such as wholemeal bread, cereals, wholemeal pasta and brown rice
  6. Avoid eating non-vegetarian food and spicy food


Types of Haemorrhoids:

Haemorrhoids are majorly divided into 2 types namely Internal Haemorrhoids and External Haemorrhoids.

  • Internal Haemorrhoids develop inside the anal canal but they can hang down outside the anus and are usually painless. They are further classified into four grades.
First Grade There are small inflammations on the inside lining of the anal canal and are not visible
Second Grade They are larger than first grade piles. They come out when passing stool but go back inside on their own afterwards
Third Grade They are known as Prolapsed Haemorrhoids.  They hang down from the anus and goes back inside when pushed.
Fourth Grade They are large and permanently hang  down from the anus
  • External Piles are swellings that develop outside the edge of the anus. They are painful and if a blood clot forms inside, it may require immediate surgical treatment.


Initial treatment in the mild condition is by changing the lifestyle of the patient.  The patient should drink lot of water and exercise regularly. Patient should avoid having spicy food, eat high fibre food and eat lots of fresh fruits and vegetables.

If the patient has severe piles and is not relieved with initial treatment methods then surgical treatment is done based on the size of the piles.

The most common surgical methods are as below:

Method Treatment
Haemorrhoidectomy The excess tissue that is causing bleeding is surgically removed. This type of surgery is open method and most effective in completely removing piles
Stapled Haemorrhoidectomy This is a closed method wherein staplers are used. This procedure is usually less painful.

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